United States Sports Academy
America's Sports University®

The Sport Digest - ISSN: 1558-6448

volume 17 number 3

Triple Tragedy of The Black Student Athlete


Black people in the US have achieved a lot in athletics since being allowed into main stream sport in the late 1940s. However, the overwhelming obsession with selected sports by the people of color has been raising fundamental sociological as well as academic issues. This paper therefore discusses the triple tragedy that Black Student Athletes unknowingly face when they exclusively pursue their dreams of becoming professional athletes at the expense of a college education. This tragedy is due to the racist ideology of sport that defines and channels blacks into “physical and athletic” endeavors and it is recommended that time is ripe to chart a new course for the black student athlete and the black community as a whole.

Three Hours a Meal or Three Meals a Day?


As a personal trainer and a person who strives to improve health, performance, and appearance, I have been taught to eat five to six meals a day. This eating habit is practiced by bodybuilders, performance athletes, and people wanting to accomplish fat loss. I find it to be a staple in what it is I teach to my clients and practice on a daily basis. Come to find out, there really is not a lot of research on eating six meals a day. The research that is available tends to side with eating less meals instead of more meals. Also, calorie restriction is still in favor, stressing that calories in must be less than calories expended. If you divide the waking hours of a person who has an eighteen-hour day, eating six meals a day would average out to about one meal every three hours. This is definitely a step away from the common acceptance of three square meals a day! Although this concept is widely accepted in the fitness and sports performance world, it is still somewhat unknown to the average person. In fact, it seems to be a rather difficult task to have a well controlled research study that involves many participants willing to eat five to six meals a day. Inaccuracies such as dishonesty in daily food journals and insufficient measurement indicators plague current research of this topic. Also, there are crucial aspects that are often left out of studies done on meal frequency, such as physical activity prior to the research, sex, content of the meals and other areas that could influence the research outcome. This review aims to explore some of the available research and provide insight on an eating technique that can lead to successful weight loss for anyone.

The “TIGER” effect on P.G.A. Television Coverage


Another major golf tournament has come and gone, one in which Tiger Woods, did not win. In 13 years of competitive golf on the PGA tour, Tiger has won 14 majors, which is impressive. But my question is not with the golfer, but with the golfing coverage. The broadcasting networks (ABC, CBS, ESPN) live and die with tiger. If I were a PGA golfer I would be offended by the amount of coverage given to one man. Case in point, Steve Stricker.

Assessing the Importance of Building Self-efficacy to Impact Motivation, Performance Levels, and Team Effectiveness


As I have studied leadership in this course and compared and contrasted self-efficacy and self-confidence for an assignment in an earlier course, it seems obvious to me that leaders can impact follower levels of motivation, performance, and team effectiveness by building individual and group self-efficacy. Not wanting to place an overemphasis in regards to building self-efficacy, I am on a quest to learn more about this issue and discover research-based answers. In an attempt to recognize the essence of an increased self-efficacy, I will begin by searching for what self-efficacy really means. The focus will then turn to essential factors for increasing self-efficacy and attempt to identify ways to build a stronger sense of self-efficacy. It will then be determined if communication and feedback can improve follower self-efficacy and conclude by looking at authority dynamics to see if there is a certain style that works best to improve overall self-efficacy levels.

Prosthetic Litigation and the Effect of Increased Physical Activity among Amputees



As many young soldiers from Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom have returned with one or more missing limbs, the amputee population has become a younger, more active community. This has lead to an increase in physical activity among the entire amputee population, military and civilian. The purpose of this paper is to explore the issues of liability and litigation within prosthetics focusing on the increased need for protection due to the trend of increasing physical activity among amputees. Through reading journals, magazines, and newspapers, and through the author’s personal observations, the research was gathered.

Cracks in the Foundation

Brick by brick, the physical structures of colleges and universities are built; however, these bricks can also be used to symbolize the intangible beliefs and values of a school. Bricks of integrity, respect, and responsibility should form a foundation strong in pride and reputation, and the mortar that holds them together should function as the school’s mission statement. Unfortunately, a growing trend exists where certain bricks are overriding the value of others, and the necessary equilibrium needed to uphold institutional integrity is no longer being achieved. As the bricks representing collegiate athletics place mounting pressure upon universities, the mission statement mortar can no longer effectively support them, and it is only a matter of time before cracks in the foundation begin to form.