United States Sports Academy
America's Sports University®

The Sport Digest - ISSN: 1558-6448


Do You Love Sports?

Do you love sports? Does that describe you?

Students in my classes have degrees in business management, finance, marketing and accounting, as well as, journalism, law, liberal arts, biology and history. Each student decided at some point that applying their degree in an area of sport would permit a combining of “loves”. Sport management degrees allow for this to occur!

Physiological Profile of Male Tae Kwon Do Athletes In Both Group I and Group II in Division I


The study was to investigate the variation in heart rate and oxygen consumption for Tae Kwon Do player during training performance. Ten male Tae Kwon Do players from Division I volunteered for the research. Experiment is performed and sample is collected for each player during training and competition period. The average age of the subject is 18.5±0.5 yr and the height is 171.7±1.8 cm ,and the weight is 62.8±0.7 kg The competition is of division I. During experiment, each subject runs on a treadmill machine at a gradient of 15% with an initial speed of 15 mph and 5 mph increase in speed every two minutes until complete exhaustion. Wireless heart recorder(POLAR) and Vmax29 gas analyzer are used to analyze heart rate and oxygen consumption. According to the statistical analysis on One-Way ANOVA Repeated Scheffe, the result s showed that: Tae Kwon Do player of HRmax was significantly different between group1 and group2 (195.3±2.8 vs. 185.5±2.1 bpm, p<.05). Tae Kwon Do player of the VO2max was significantly different between group1 and group2(53.1±2.0 vs. 45.1±0.5 ml/kg/min, p<.05). Tae Kwon Do player of the BMI was significantly different between group1 and group2 (21.3±0.5 vs. 27.5±0.3 kg/m, p<.05).

The SAID Principle & Aerobic/Anaerobic Training

There are many basic principles of physical training an athlete must utilize for optimal results within their training program. The SAID Principle, the principle of specific adaptations to imposed demands is the foundation for sport specific training. Specific adaptations are known to take place in the human body in response to specific types of stimuli. The SAID Principle is the bases for physiological changes due to the imposed demands of the specific training stimuli.

Sport Science Training


Since tae-kwon-do has become an optical Olympic event competition in this event. Therefore, apart from keeping outstanding instructors and contestants, we must integrate the training and technology to elevate the training efficiency. The most important function for a successful coach is to help athletes to improve their athletic skill in a wide range of tasks from sequential development and mastery of basic skills for beginners, to the more specialized physical, technical, tactical and psychological preparation of elite athletes (Martens,1987) (Bompa,1983). Fast development of world-class high strength training and science has had a significant impact on the scientific training. Examples included weight control, not only covering the grading of various levels of athlete’s body weight but also balancing physical ability and health. Sport training is important even for excellent athletes. Only when their cardio respiratory function, energy expenditure and blood lactate system are well controlled can they show their potential and maintain high performance. This is very important to both coaches and athletes (Hiroyuki et al., 1999). Peaking, or the ability of an athlete to perform at peak performance during the main competition or games of the year, is also related to strength training.

The Study of Physiological Factors of Division I and II Basketball Players - Related to Training Time


The purpose of this research was to investigate the rest value and post exercise situation (5, 30, 60minute) of athletes with heart rate, oxygen consumption, and blood lactic acid. The objectives for this research were 20 volunteer Taiwanese basketball players, from university’s division I and II basketball players, whose average age was 21.6±1.83 years, average weight was 79.6±8.05 kg, and average height was 184.5±4.19 cm. During experiment, each subject rode the bicycle until completely exhaustion at a speed of 60 RPM and power of 150W that will increase by 30W for every two minutes until they feel totally exhausted. Observed the changes of heart Rate ,oxygen consumption and blood lactate from the physiological biochemical serum specimens when the players were in resting state and recovery state after exercising (5, 30, 60 min.). The indices were measured by the Polar heart rate recorder, Vmax29 analytical instrument, and blood lactate acid analytical instrument (YSI2300). All the information was analyzed by a single factor which changed and explained by the Schffee’ way, and the results as follow:

Do Scholarship Limitations Effect College Football Parity?

According to the literature there is mixed opinion as to whether restrictions in scholarships really affects the parity in college football. Mainly because is it difficult to measure competitiveness between teams. In the quest to maintain amateurism in football and college sports, corruption, cheating, and violation of rules have appeared to be a problem since the early 1900s. It is this author’s opinion that it is not the question of amateurism that is should be under debate. Rather, the sanctions set by the NCAA.

Tainted Talent (Sport Psychology Case Study)


This study examines the undisciplined behavior of a player (Michelle), who creates an inappropriate environment in her team towards an achievement of a good performance; she suffers from psychological problems caused by a rough family environment; she is deprived of affection, stability, and is perhaps the breadwinner.

The Components of Fitness & Exercise Physiology

The desire to achieve the perfect body or a better quality of life has been driving the fitness industry over the course of the past two decades and it shows no signs of slowing down. Regardless how an individual approaches health and fitness, a general understanding of the components of fitness and exercise physiology are required.

The Personal Trainer

The topics of fitness, health and the quality of life are prevalently talked about and advertised within the various media arenas today. Staying healthy by eating right and engaging in daily exercise is the current craze.

A key to securing a healthier lifestyle and staying fit and healthy is thru education—- the education that comes from sound advice on nutrition and training that is backed-up by science. Sometimes it is necessary to seek professional help to acquire this knowledge and hire a personal trainer.

Physical Activity and Exercise for Older Adults


It’s a serious problem for older adults to increase in age every year. Before 2030, the number of individuals 65 yr and over will reach 70 million in the United States alone; persons 85 yr and older will be the fastest growing segment of the population. As more individuals live longer, it is imperative to determine the extent and mechanisms by which exercise and physical activity can improve health, functional capacity, quality of life, and independence in this population (Robert et al, 1999). Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among older adults worldwide, including Europe, Asia, and North America (Taylor-Piliae , Haskell , Sivarajan ,2005). Thus, current estimates predict that the number of adults over the age of 65 years (older adults) will increase from 13% of the U.S. population in 2000 to 20% by 2030, with the most rapid expansion occurring among those aged 85 and older (Federal Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics, 2000). Evan, Michael, Douglas & Crowell (1999) showed the office-based pre-participation evaluation for older adults addresses cardiovascular status, muscle strength, flexibility, balance, and agility. Thus, it’s very important for older adults to exercise and physical activity.