United States Sports Academy
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The Sport Digest - ISSN: 1558-6448


Book Review: The Yankee Years (2009) by Torre, Joe & Verducci, Tom

The Yankee Years gives an in depth review of Joe Torre’s stint as the manager of the New York Yankees. The highly successful run of Torre’s early years with the organization (Four World Championships from 1996-2000) contrasts his later years and the events that led to his downfall. Students involved in sport management have an opportunity to examine the relationships between administrative positions-Manager, General Manager, and Owner-of the most famous professional sport organization in the world.

Triple Tragedy of The Black Student Athlete


Black people in the US have achieved a lot in athletics since being allowed into main stream sport in the late 1940s. However, the overwhelming obsession with selected sports by the people of color has been raising fundamental sociological as well as academic issues. This paper therefore discusses the triple tragedy that Black Student Athletes unknowingly face when they exclusively pursue their dreams of becoming professional athletes at the expense of a college education. This tragedy is due to the racist ideology of sport that defines and channels blacks into “physical and athletic” endeavors and it is recommended that time is ripe to chart a new course for the black student athlete and the black community as a whole.

Three Hours a Meal or Three Meals a Day?


As a personal trainer and a person who strives to improve health, performance, and appearance, I have been taught to eat five to six meals a day. This eating habit is practiced by bodybuilders, performance athletes, and people wanting to accomplish fat loss. I find it to be a staple in what it is I teach to my clients and practice on a daily basis. Come to find out, there really is not a lot of research on eating six meals a day. The research that is available tends to side with eating less meals instead of more meals. Also, calorie restriction is still in favor, stressing that calories in must be less than calories expended. If you divide the waking hours of a person who has an eighteen-hour day, eating six meals a day would average out to about one meal every three hours. This is definitely a step away from the common acceptance of three square meals a day! Although this concept is widely accepted in the fitness and sports performance world, it is still somewhat unknown to the average person. In fact, it seems to be a rather difficult task to have a well controlled research study that involves many participants willing to eat five to six meals a day. Inaccuracies such as dishonesty in daily food journals and insufficient measurement indicators plague current research of this topic. Also, there are crucial aspects that are often left out of studies done on meal frequency, such as physical activity prior to the research, sex, content of the meals and other areas that could influence the research outcome. This review aims to explore some of the available research and provide insight on an eating technique that can lead to successful weight loss for anyone.

The “TIGER” effect on P.G.A. Television Coverage


Another major golf tournament has come and gone, one in which Tiger Woods, did not win. In 13 years of competitive golf on the PGA tour, Tiger has won 14 majors, which is impressive. But my question is not with the golfer, but with the golfing coverage. The broadcasting networks (ABC, CBS, ESPN) live and die with tiger. If I were a PGA golfer I would be offended by the amount of coverage given to one man. Case in point, Steve Stricker.

Assessing the Importance of Building Self-efficacy to Impact Motivation, Performance Levels, and Team Effectiveness


As I have studied leadership in this course and compared and contrasted self-efficacy and self-confidence for an assignment in an earlier course, it seems obvious to me that leaders can impact follower levels of motivation, performance, and team effectiveness by building individual and group self-efficacy. Not wanting to place an overemphasis in regards to building self-efficacy, I am on a quest to learn more about this issue and discover research-based answers. In an attempt to recognize the essence of an increased self-efficacy, I will begin by searching for what self-efficacy really means. The focus will then turn to essential factors for increasing self-efficacy and attempt to identify ways to build a stronger sense of self-efficacy. It will then be determined if communication and feedback can improve follower self-efficacy and conclude by looking at authority dynamics to see if there is a certain style that works best to improve overall self-efficacy levels.

Prosthetic Litigation and the Effect of Increased Physical Activity among Amputees



As many young soldiers from Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom have returned with one or more missing limbs, the amputee population has become a younger, more active community. This has lead to an increase in physical activity among the entire amputee population, military and civilian. The purpose of this paper is to explore the issues of liability and litigation within prosthetics focusing on the increased need for protection due to the trend of increasing physical activity among amputees. Through reading journals, magazines, and newspapers, and through the author’s personal observations, the research was gathered.

Cracks in the Foundation

Brick by brick, the physical structures of colleges and universities are built; however, these bricks can also be used to symbolize the intangible beliefs and values of a school. Bricks of integrity, respect, and responsibility should form a foundation strong in pride and reputation, and the mortar that holds them together should function as the school’s mission statement. Unfortunately, a growing trend exists where certain bricks are overriding the value of others, and the necessary equilibrium needed to uphold institutional integrity is no longer being achieved. As the bricks representing collegiate athletics place mounting pressure upon universities, the mission statement mortar can no longer effectively support them, and it is only a matter of time before cracks in the foundation begin to form.

Federation Internationale du Sport Universitaire (FISU)

The United States Sports Academy has always supported organizations that promote Sport around the world. The United States Sports Academy is proud to introduce such an organization that represents some 144 National University Sports Federations. The Federation Internationale du Sport Universitaire (International University Sports Federation) was founded in 1949.

Book Review - Applied Sport Management Skills, written by: Robert N. Lussier and David C. Kimball

Lussier and Kimball have created the ultimate sport management textbook for both students and professors. Applied Sport Management Skills is jam-packed with applied exercises in sport management techniques that build students skill levels. The text is filled with a variety of exercises such as: Self Assessments, Skill Building, Applying the Concept, Case Studies, Tim-Outs and Take it to the Net exercises. Each and every one of these exercises is designed to teach the reader the valuable skills associated with sport management.

Analysis of Season-Ending Knee Injuries in the National Football League 2006-2008


Investigation of season-ending knee injuries in the National Football League (NFL) from 2006-2008. Researcher chose to expand my search to include any knee injury that required a player to be placed on Injured Reserve as this information is widely available to collect for the last three years. With these adjusted parameters, it was possible to perform more detailed analysis.

A summary of findings: The rate of season-ending knee injuries is inversely proportional to the number of team wins and the position of running back has the highest season-ending knee injury rate per player. The studies of the injury rate vs. team, division, and month did not produce results with statistical significance.