United States Sports Academy
America's Sports University®

The Sport Digest - ISSN: 1558-6448

volume 17 number 1

2008 Olympic Sport Tourism


2008 Olympic international sport even bring big business and economic in china and successful international sport mega-events will bring much positive outcomes and result in a quantum jump in the amount and the rate of change in a host community such as image enhancement, unity within the host community, and more opportunities to enjoy sport matches and attract foreign travelers (Bramwell, 1997; Kim, Petrick, 2005).

For large sport events like FIFA World cup, interest in the event and perceived constraints should derive from the level of fan motives, travel motivations, and the potential attendee’s background (Kim, Chalip, 2004).

Traumatic Brain Injuries in Sports

It is estimated that there are 300,000 sports related traumatic brain injuries (TBI’s) occur in the United States each year. Most of which are mild to severe concussions. They can be caused by both repeated blows and/or one significant blow to the skull. The proportion of these concussions that are repeat injuries is unknown; however, there is an increased risk for subsequent TBI among persons who have had at least one previous TBI. Death can occur if left untreated or sent back into competition before ready.

Gender Bias in American Sports: Lack of Opportunity, Lack of Administrative Positions and Lack of Coverage in Women's Sports

“In the early days, female volleyball players were cautioned not to expose too much . A hundred years later, they were encouraged to expose more”. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Women’s Sports. pg. 281.

“If people want to come check us out because they’re scoping our bodies, I don’t have a problem with that, because I guarantee they’ll go home talking about our athleticism”. pg. 283.

“These women are as deft at handling the ball as they are lipstick”. pg. 262.

“Let’s face facts here. Lesbians in the sport hurt women’s golf……..Laura Davies is built like a tank”. pg. 66

“The reason for this [media frenzy dubbed Annamania] is simple: She’s blond, she’s flirtatious and she’s pretty. Never, ever, underestimate the power of a male sports editor smitten.” pg. 52.

“The Olympic Games should be a solemn and periodic exaltation of male athleticism with internationalism as a base, loyalty as a means, arts for its setting, and female applause as reward.” Pierre de Coubertin. Idiot’s Guide. pg. 31.

“If there are two people the same, would I prefer to see women coaching women? As role models, I think it’s important. But not to sacrifice a program.” Pat Babcock. N.Y. Times. 2002

Aboriginal Stereotypes in Sports: Intentions gone horribly wrong?


“What is the problem with naming sports teams and mascots after Aboriginal people?” Is a refrain that is often heard throughout North America. Aboriginal is the term used in Canada to describe First Nations (Indians), Metis (People of Indian & European blood), and Inuit (Eskimo). As the struggle to rid the North American sports lexicon of racist, stereotypical images and nicknames of Aboriginal people increases, so does the backlash to that struggle. With the recent ruling by the NCAA to ban such nicknames (NCAA, 2005, ¶12), there remains much hope for Aboriginal people to be properly represented by institutions of higher learning, and society in general. However, the backlash remains stronger than ever for such a change, with one example being Florida governor, Jeb Bush, who has vehemently spoken out in opposition to the NCAA ban, even claiming that the Seminole tribe of Florida is opposed to the NCAA ruling (AP, 2005, ¶3). Bush’s actions speak volumes to the marginalization that allows the stereotype of Aboriginal people to continue.

“Energy Drinks” Implications for Student Athletes and Athletic Departments


The worldwide “energy drink” market has grown exponentially in the last decade. The primary targets of the industry’s marketing campaigns are young adults and as a result, university and college athletes are frequent consumers of these products. The effects of these beverages can be quite significant therefore their use by student athletes requires analysis. Athletic departments and coaches need to be cognizant of current trends and knowledgeable about the potential effects that these beverages may have on student athletes. In addition to this, they should also be able to provide direction to their athletes regarding the use of these drinks.

Flexibility Program for Sprinters

This flexibility program is for all sprinters alike. Whether it is short distance or longer distance, this program can be tapered to your specific needs and expectations so that you can get the most out of it as possible. I have devised this program to work with both high school and college athletes. Obviously, certain things can be tapered since athletes in college and high school are such a broad spectrum, and also because the talent and differences in levels will also be a factor.

Trends in Product Endorsements by Athletes

The history of endorsements by professional athletes gives one insight as to how such opportunities developed and how far the business of endorsements has come since that first baseball bat by endorsed by Honus Wagner over 100 years ago. With the growth of sports media and the sports industry in general, it appears that the market for sports celebrities to endorse products will continue to grow at a significant rate.

The Relationship between Physical Self-Presentational and Social Physique Anxiety


In modern society, everyone is busy with work and life; however, people need to exercise or perform physical activities to counteract weight, stress, and fitness debilitation. In addition, some people exercise to manage their body image. The purpose of exercise is to present a healthy, emphatic life image. Conroy and Motl (2003) argued that people exhibited a desire to show their active abilities, to assume their lovely sport’s image, or to present their socially desirable traits in public settings. They explained that doing exercise could upgrade a person’s expectative image in a kind of body-image management. Some people think that a good body image is linked to a life of happiness, success, social acceptance, etc. Just so, some people think fatness is linked to a life of laziness, stupidity, chaos, etc. Most people want to present a good body image to dissimulate bad body image to others. Therefore, many people who believe that having an attractive image or socially desirable traits is linked to having a good personality that is “physical attractiveness stereotype” (Dion, Bersheid & Walster, 1972).

The Economic Impact of Sports Facilities


In the past twenty years, there has been a dramatic increase in construction of new sports facilities. From professional leagues to colleges to city recreation facilities, it appears that the trend will continue. Much of the cost of new construction or renovation is subsidized. Those in support of subsidies believe that these new facilities will provide a substantial economic impact. They argue that the construction of these facilities will inject new spending into the local economy through fan support (ticket and other product revenues), job creation and tax revenues. Opponents, however, argue that a modest factory or a small research facility has as much or more economic impact. This paper will discuss the basic aspects of sports facility planning and the arguments for and against the construction of new sports facilities.

The Origin of Yoga and the Development of Yoga

Yoga, meaning union in Sanskrit (Phoenix, 2007; Pullicino, 2007; Radha, 1996), is a family of ancient spiritual practices, and also a school of spiritual thought that originated in India, where it remained a vibrant living tradition and was seen as a means to enlightenment (Stiles, 2002). People believed the origin of yoga was in Ancient India. Between 4000 B. C. and 2000 B. C., artifacts of Indus Valley Civilization showed figures in seated, cross-legged poses, and symbols later associated with yoga (Jones, 2000; Beck, 1996). “Yoga can be defined as “mindfulness,” or the process of directing the attention toward whatever we were doing at the moment. Through practicing yoga postures, people were directed toward the present moment using the breath” (Fronske, 2005). Phoenix (2007) indicated “Yoga is a complete system of life, its magnitude vast, and benefits limitless.”