volume 15 number 4
An exercise prescription is a key component to a client/athlete’s success. A trainer’s ability to create a program and systematically update that program can be simplified prior to the commencement of an activity by meeting client/athletes to become fully aware of their situations, personal goals, limitations, time frame, and starting base-line of fitness and health. With this information, the trainer can prescribe a program that addresses client/athletes’ needs, improves their abilities, motivates them, and creates a fun atmosphere.
Progressive resistance training dates back to ancient Greece. Legend states that wrestler Milo of Croton trained by carrying a newborn calf on his back every day until it was fully grown. Resistance training involves the use of elastic resistance rather than gravity, whereas weight training provides the majority of the resistance at the beginning. Elastic resistance provides the greatest resistance at the end of the motion, when the elastic element is stretched to its fullest capacity (Todd, 1995).
What type of leadership behaviors do student-athletes prefer from university coaches? Do characteristics like gender, competition levels, or types of sport influence tae-kwon-do student-athlete behavior preferences? The lack of answers to these questions is due to the complexity inherent in the questions themselves. Past attempts to answer these questions have been sporadic and often peripheral (Chelladurai, 1984; Beam, Serwatka, & Wilson, 2004).
Strength training is not a modern invention. Egyptian tombs show pictures of lifting bags filled with sand and stone swinging and throwing exercises. These types of things were also popular in early Germany, Scotland, and Spain. Weightlifting competitions date back to the early Greek civilization. These events led to the origination of games that later became known as the modern Olympics. The pioneers of these events did not have the sophisticated equipment that we have today or the research on training and physiology to back up the exercises, but they did have the most important thing — the desire to lift something heavy for fun, sport, and physical health.
The old Spanish-style building had sported individual tiles, each of which depicted a different icon of classic athletic performance… I am sure few people even thought to notice that every single one of the athletes depicted on these beautiful tiles was a man. But in 1999 when they were building the new gym somebody did notice…[So] side by side, with the old tiles on the façade of the new gym […] new ones depicted women athletes hurdling, playing basketball and soccer. The gender symmetry depicted on the tiles of the new gym represents a dramatic shift toward and acceptance - even a symbolic celebration - of girls’ and women’s presence in sports.
Exercise is a critical component in managing diabetes. Aerobic exercise can decrease the requirements of insulin and increase the body’s sensitivity to insulin. Exercise can also help to attain and maintain ideal body weight and decrease the risk for hypertensive diseases, including cardiovascular and peripheral vascular disease, while slowing the progression of diabetic nephropathy (kidney damage).
Since 1980, cheerleading has evolved into an activity demanding high levels of skill and athleticism (Brenda, Shields, & Gary, 2006). Cheerleading in the United States is a year round competitive activity spanning three typical sports seasons (fall, winter, and spring), and culminating with summer camp and competition. Catastrophic injuries have increased over the years, presumably because of an increase in the gymnastic-like stunts common in cheerleading (Mueller & Cantu, 2003; Jacobson, Redus, & Palmer, 2005).