How Times Have Changed in Sports and in the Country
Wayne Edmonds was the first Negro to suit up for Notre Dame in 1953 and did play in the 1955 Orange Bowl in Miami.John Wooten was an outstanding player for Colorado between 1956 and 1958 and knows about racial discrimination in college football during those days. On January 1, 1957, Colorado and Clemson played in the Miami Orange Bowl, but it seems someone did not want Wooten, a guard, and receiver Frank Clarke playing for Colorado that day. The rest of the football team was welcomed in Miami.
“In 1957, there at Colorado, we were to play Clemson in the Orange Bowl. Clemson wanted to pull…we had two Negroes, me and Frank Clarke, were on the Colorado team and they wanted to pull the ‘old well we can’t play you because you have Negroes on your team.’ Our athletic director Dean (Harry) Carlson spoke up and said ‘you need to talk to the Orange Bowl because we aren’t going to leave our players at home’, these were the kind of things and people have spoke out,” said Wooten. “As I look back at it then and I say now just think of Dean Carlson and (coach) Dal Ward had come to us, well we are not going to take you to the Orange Bowl because of that. But instead, they took just the opposite. They said, hey we are coming to play; if you don’t want to play, then you talk to the Orange Bowl committee.”
Wooten did face an awful out of discrimination as a member of the University of Colorado football squad and then with the Cleveland Browns. But, he added that Carlson, Ward and Cleveland Browns coach, general manager and football operations director would have none of that.
“So we have seen it, fortunate for us, we were with teams where the leadership of the team said we are going to stay together. You are not going to separate us. Our black players are not going to go and have to stay with black families. They are going to stay at the hotel where we all stay. If we can’t go to the movies together, none of us go to the movies,” Wooten continued. “All of those things give you such a great substance of your life dealing with people because it keeps you from getting into this color thing.”
Wooten lost a teammate in 1962 when Cleveland traded Bobby Mitchell to the Washington Redskins in what was a straight football deal for a top draft pick that was forced by the Kennedy Administration. Cleveland got the NFL rights to Syracuse University running back Ernie Davis.
The Washington Redskins owner George Preston Marshall, who never hid his racial views, did not hire any Negro players for his team. The federal government had decided to build a new multipurpose stadium in Washington for American League’s Senators to replace Griffith Stadium along with the Redskins. That stadium forced Marshall’s hand as President John F. Kennedy’s Secretary of Interior Stewart Udall pushed Marshall and made him obey legislation that prohibited discrimination in federal facilities. D. C. Stadium was a federal facility. Udall gave Marshall what amounted to an ultimatum, either hire Negro players or find somewhere else to play.
Marshall had a 30-year lease with the federal government and picked the Syracuse University star Ernie Davis to shut up the Kennedy Administration. He sent Davis to Cleveland for Mitchell and a first round pick after the 1961-62 NFL Draft.
Marshall was the last owner to desegregate his team. The NFL unofficially had a quota system in place limiting the amount of Negro players on each team. The NFL banned black players from 1934 to 1946, and there is some thought among NFL historians that Marshall’s purchase of the Boston Redskins in 1932 and his influence on other owners led to the policy. Marshall moved the Boston Braves/Redskins franchise to Washington in 1937.
Marshall’s Redskins ran onto the field to the song, “Hail to the Redskins,” which included a lyric “Fight for Old Dixie” that was eventually changed to “Fight for Old D.C”. The song also ended with the opening for Dixie.
It is thought that the NFL was forced to hire Negro players in 1946, when Daniel Reeves moved his Cleveland Rams to Los Angeles, and part of the lease agreement with the Los Angeles Coliseum included a clause that made the team hire Negro players. Two UCLA stars, Kenny Washington and Woody Strode, became the first Negro players in the NFL since 1933.